CNC Router Build #5 - Motors and Movement

by: John Ward

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hello I'm JW at this time the CNC machine will be fitting the stepper motors and also the spindle motor wiring goes things up and hopefully getting those motors actually working so completely a spinning rotational to the axes and things moving and of course that will also go some wiring inside the cabinet as well so we'll have a look at all of those things but this is the end of the the by actual spital here they're all basically the same and that this is the coupler here which comes in three parts I've got two of these aluminium pieces one goes over each spindle one here on the actual motor itself and this is plastic piece here which shirts goes between and I'll do of these if it gives it a small amount of flexibility so that if these are not perfectly lined up then Calci still connect correctly you can't get these made out of solid metal I have it in form of those ears you've got it in a line two spindles perfectly which in reality is next to impossible and there's another kind as well which is made out of solid metal but it's like a spiral effect that we've got these ones here as the spire that one's looked a bit too fragile and like these you unwind themselves but the appellant's was play straightforward I guess over the spindle of the Machine and as motor spindle and fit in the end like that these clamp down with the little screws here now they not see this will then transmit this turning force through to the machine now succession motor what we've got are some of these so it's a PA bulks that goes through the motor and then a tube which is aluminium now the machine you actually cover some of these that they turn out to be too short these motors are quite long spindle so what are the ones of those supplied with order for us most of is much shorter spindle so just got some longer ones and cut some piece of anything and tubing there to make slightly longer links and they straight forward in the case of this one we're going to have to working at the bottom so this goes through the hole in the motor and then just throw it into the hole on the side of the machine this two goes over here and otherwise our spacing so anytime this down it creates the correct spacing otherwise it will just sort of pull it in further and also not work correctly so for those one at each corner and that just goes in like that now you can use sort of like a hexagonal key thing to go in there that I choose option is one of these which is just basically a handle with the hexagonal end like that so you can also get the turning force going in some not easily so that when she goes in like that then it's basically the same for the others so screw goes through the top hole like that spacer piece goes in the middle tighten it up from the side so that that will attach there just before on each corner and this is they're basically just slice together like that so when we finish we'll just slide that fully in tighten those down and that will go to turn when the motor turns as well but today we're going to give that pull back so we can actually move this without having to move the motor as well interview the others so this is one just attached one of that side is the same and so these actually move themselves quarter to rotate with actual things are fixed so wise just come on the bottom here and this one off the attention here later the others here on the actual Gumtree roof does move so it one on the end here and the other ones come along to the bottom and the third axis on the top here these have to move so got these plastic tracks here so as this moves across turn upon and see the cables off so you just move along flex as appropriate and got the motive are there this one is for the spindle power which just goes over the top at the used to delimit switches for the z-axis which are not yet connected and on the back here got a junction box here I was getting to the limit switches so single cable from the main controller and that will just switch off into the four switches are all here so two here for the z-axis and then two here for the x-axis one at each end so as we're tired and try to have a lot of all four cables getting back to the controller and there's not any point anyhow because ultimately all wired together and the other limit switches will go on the fixed part of the frame here so again they don't have to also move with the rest of the equipment and this is the spindle holder basis goes through there these climb down to secure it in place came with the spindle and this plate here which is part of the machine as you can see it's not narrower than the actual holder itself so let's make this adapter plate just quarter inch aluminium and just put some holes here on the sides just evolve these through onto the plate itself and then we got two more holes at the top and two at the bottom here which will go into these holes actually added in the front of this plate so ascend to this will just bolt on the front like that and then this here is the actual power the spindle Phillips goes in the will plug on the top and then this will actually yeah we've done on this flexible track thing it's just quiet now this you'd have to come with a mounting thing it was little tiny piece down here the bottom obviously designs very much smaller spindle it was only hold literally though just a ring so it wouldn't be mass definitely secure in any case but yeah this ami issue then and this one of course the center body is basically the width this plate and any ears where it screws through of course overlap so just with a sort of conversional adapter plate thing on the back there now finish your cord making these holes cuz of course here you wanna get one chance to get it right without drilling through something in the back and destroying the place but essentially it's these sort of cap screw things that is used with the rest of machine is a stainless steel two hulls here which are cited these passed straight through currents holes and then in here just drilled out the holes and then threaded those or the tap so that then these can screw in here and I'll see tightened down and the same with the two here at the bottom as well so now we've got here these holes here have made slightly large so this can have some adjustment so that when it's all assembled in it seemed absolutely vertical because of course we don't know exactly how well aligned that is and not additionally adapter plate and so on so some adjustment can be needed to get this remix correct vertical alignment and then for the alignment in the other direction sort of like that then if it proves to be correct then it's fine but if not just undo one more these just for the thin metal shim or something behind to get the correct angle and it's required that they weren't an answer it's all fully assembled so percent of these go through here and then just go into these holes here just read this before in here and then there's two more easel to go underneath in the holes of the bottom two computers on the camera that saying like the ash can connect at the top if look at the side track of the machine I put this plastic box here just cables go through mostly just pass straight through and the only ones in here are for the limit switches again this is how you have a single cable from the cabinet just this one presume it switches and then we've got this one which goes on here and I've gone to the top here and then to that box which we saw earlier on the back and the point of that is that me and have one limit switch and I see top cable going back to the machine otherwise we had to have a huge extra fat bundle of at least another six of those towards its putting convenient and also completely unnecessary so those will join in here and then when have the other limit switches for this axis here called on this end and you learned over this side and again we just bring those through the hole off but make sure if necessary and the other two mostly stop sir this is one of them will probably go on the front sort of summer here and probably over the other end as well and again we'll wire those into the same signal cable here multiple calls obviously and again that just means we have the one cable going metal machine and this at six in total or the tie those together as you can see there and the dealer these thing on the side is that these are flexible but they can don't move very much in this direction so they keep it fairly rigid so that when things move these ends are the flop around and get tangled up in the mechanism and whatever so this moves

then you see these things will just curve around as appropriate and therefore not all tangled around in those bits of moving parts if the live I've just put them through those holes on the side that so we've got this one which is for the spindle and the top see my short over just getting to the spindle inverter just here this one is for the limits and the emergency stop now let's go fiddle board in the middle here which yet installed just like that and then the other four here are for the seven motors so one for each automotive and those let's go to the individual drives here so the XY did and then the additional one for the y-axis as well so here's why they come inside the cabinet and I just expose a short section of the braid there and then just put another piece of braid across all six of those and then basically test it to being nut on the back panel so those are officially connected to the metal cabinet here's the board installed in the cabinet and have a look they have the two boards the breakout board on the bottom and the motion controller on the top there and it says three short ribbon type cables joining the two together and I've got seven motors and things attached here those are the connections on the left there the purple and green and also the orange ones power for this board comes in at the top left there the gray no in just 24 volts DC and on this side just got a cover the interconnection which is essentially mostly stop buttons or the contacts from the contactor and also the limits which is now - what limits which is in place yet so I've just put a link for those in the box on the actual machine so let's get this thing working and then finally got these net cable there which means comes out of that goes up to the socket in the side of the cabinet there and then the other photo got another cable coming out and I just goes up into the computer up there and that aerial thing sticking out there is actually how this computer connects to the internet so we can also update things the internet on this expiry actual board there and nothing else if the connections to one of the stepper drivers since we've got at the bottom there the power coming in so ground end plus 48 volts on the yellow then we've got the four black wires go to the stepper motor and then the three was there orange is actually common as I said on the side of the thing there and then got the two eyes of step and direction and those three come from the natural breakout boards we just saw and little for lead I'll say else is just motor and different connections on the board for those is the settings switches and a configure be assert for these specific motors which is essentially a four amp motor and then the features at the end they're also selected so what's my option so it reduces the power used when the motor and I are should be moving and that one at the end which is in 34 or NEMA 34 we don't need an option so that's actually left in the on position in this case too the motors are you know 23 and the pins they're six seven eight aren't use those metal those so for the current it's basically the pin number one there or switch one is on and the others are off it gives us a tries currents of four amps and for answer what is most serrated to so that's why we have selected it and so we're not using the current set terminals at the top and in theory put a resistor there and set the current test something else other than from the switch is that in this case we can get for em setting just from the switch isn't of no resistant required now in the cabinet here I've got the ESA board installed with the to the bare minimum of connection so there will be quite a lot of other connections on this side and this side for the panel buttons which are going here and essentially what inputs here so when you press a switch it will enter a one of these inputs to certain function and then we've got lo two outputs on this side which we use to in luminate the actual buttons as and when necessary so although the button illumination on the button in the same physical unit sending a signal to achieve something will be on this side and then the controller will basically computer will send a signal back to say that yes something had occurred or this button is available for use or whatever else and I will do it at a later time because we just want to make sure that the mechanical parts are the most things to actually work don't you need the specific controls at the moment on the back of the emotionally stop here I just made this set minor change here so originally we're just using the bottom red content which is the normally closed once it opens when you press the button and we can we just had it on these two but because we going to have the external ones we've got the two black wires here which is coming from outside so our circuit is between the gray so it comes on the gray goes out from one of the black I'm just using this as basically a thing to join the two wires together unless you're using this contact so it on the gray through the switch out on the black to the other two things I have externally comes back on the old back and I just joined onto the gray as we had before so we're going to have this one and two others and syndra just putting all of the contacts in series so that any one of those opening of course said if you make the power in the manner we've seen in the previous episode here's the wiring for the spindle and this is the terminal box of the inverter and the spindle is connected to those four terminals on the right hand side so if they've got UV and W which are the three wires to go to the motor to three-phase motor and then the one on the right is the earth connection and that's also that other wire which comes off core from the from the power supply and over on the left day I got the S&T which is basically the mains voltage input only to use because this is a single feeding on a three-phase out although you could use it for three-phase in in which case you will just connect the three phases to our s and T but in the case of this single phase just goes to any two of the terminals over on the left so the UVW is basic what goes to the motor now if the motor goes in the wrong direction then when it says forward on the inverter the motors going in Reverse then all you need to do is just to swap over any two of the UV and W connections don't matter which ones that to any payer can be swapped over and then it will go in the other direction velocity when it's this forward on the inverter you want it to be going the proper forward or clockwise direction and why is it always destroy cutters and plenty of other things besides now because that's so wide in we can now actually turn on the spindle and see if it actually works because up to this point we've got no idea I mean obviously there's no reason why it shouldn't work about course you never know with everything that's been supplying ideas so I put the spindle in the holder there and just tighten that down so it's too clamped in position and see the plug on the top now just comes from the cable that's just the other end of the cable goes straight into the inverter and tightened up the nuts of the bottom there somewhat so it doesn't go flying off and cutting somebody and now we can actually go to the inverter power line up and then we should be s use that button on the front to switch the thing on off manually now we can actually turn this on here and to do this we have to use the cabinet in the open position with lies parts exposed so all those people with comments from the safety police building it really because this is your opportunity to but always cartoon about how dangerous and unsafe this is so it's just to turn on the main power that's the fam whatever there and we're just switching as well from buttons on the front and I've been the bear so it will switch on and with a delay on turning on some reason or other that unless there it is so that has turned on now this inverter was supplied with the spindle and the deal with that was that the inverter should already be set up to operate this to the spindle which is a foreman at first twenty four thousand RPM model so we should have to go and do any programming i know if we do we have got therefore instruction manual in english if we needed to do that so i'll sit down but so let's just see what gives here they see it saying at the top here power forwards and the others not let them do their so it specifies presumably yeah those position you want forward that has that run in rural Cambodia and then we've got hurt here so this resume is a frequency currently zero and in the pants and our OTT apparently oh it should show the frequency which this one so shall be between norson 400 so it's let's run then it's theoretically should start and return this knob to the next position for this low speed so that seems to be a normal fashion now in theory concern is normal yeah and we spin Belize now we're taking a smaller slow speed it's going in the correct direction now this is the second time I've actually done this because guess what but oh there's only three wires and only two possible options yep let's um do this it went in the wrong direction so now in the correct direction and the concern this up

Thank You Hertz there and that's the ferry past but nowhere near they call 3po is just crank it and see how fast the Joe



so then we have it it certainly does work and you notice it's really clean out and that's because it's an air-cooled spindle not one of those water-cooled jobs which it literally is somewhat quieter but today we okay is because we're not gonna be standing here listening to it all day long anyway so that's that it seems to work properly now of course that was just turning on manually with the controls on the front of course in reality it's going to be controlled from the board here so there will be some additional control wiring though in terms of the power wiring for that and that's pretty much it now just have a very quick look at the software that's got me a sword on this machine this is a max or or mark 4 as the actual controller not sure how you should pronounce that but anyway you think Mac is it's really short for machine anyway now this is what got here I don't need to set this up in the most crude of fashion just lazy to get the things working so it was a lot more configuration will be necessary and I mess it on it just say they stopped in effect because the thing that's actually turned on what nacelles on that the spindle makes a lot of noise or a fan in the inverter makes quite a bit of noise but little bit of software that you'll be using and in addition to this particular one we've also had to install the driver for the actual smooth stepper motion controller board and there's also a configuration file which came with that breakout board which was more of a convenient thing later so has all the inputs and outputs set up without having to go in and do all of those manually now see the motors moving in just a moment and cover that a bit but essentially this kind of software is not the full thing you can just install and then use straightaway it's basically installing it and then there's a lot of configuration that's necessary to set it out for a specific machine so where the considerable amount of stuff in here and quick look at the configuration options and as you can see there there's a lot of stuff in now which needs configuration whatever and then in addition to that we've also got the configuration for the actual thing itself that in the motion troller and that's got a huge pile of stuff which needs configuring in there as well so certainly a sort of thing which is interface are considered that aren't set up but thankfully you only have to do that once basically for I see the machine now let's say I said that basically just to get the things working or motors moving so let's have a look and see how that works now before actually running the motor to any kind of moderate speed then there is an adjustment to make here and on the side of each of the drivers is a small adjustment thing see that the top right of the unit there and the idea is that you run the motive at a fairly slow speed and then adjust the little thing there to get the minimum amount of vibration and this of course will vary for each individual motor as they're all slightly different so we'll just do that on one of these also we're going to do the same thing on all four but we'll just have a look at one of them so here's the motor and well here just to turn this on and uh not just the adjustment screw there and hopefully should hear as changing the tone of the motor and so the objective is to get it so it's the sort of quietest or the least amount of vibration

so I've now done all four in the same way I also tighten up those clamps so they all now actually drive their taxis in the usual way so no going to try moving the various axes around I'm going to start out at the fairly slow speeds and then basically turn up the speed to see how far it will go and being one this is only a fairly basic test this is probably not the optimal configuration for these motors yet but it gives you some idea of the actual speed that this thing can move at and unlike most the other CNC videos on youtube this is actually not sped up at all this is the actual speed in news that I have turned down the volume on a couple of these sections because the y-axis being having two motors is fairly loud when it's actually moving but anyway the fees here are the actual speed so let's have a look

now that's it for this time and that there's took a lot left to do because the spindle for example isn't currently connected to the controller and the idea is that can be connected so that the program you're running can turn the spindle on and off and also adjust the speed of it and the speed the spindle is 22:7 on what kind of tool is installed in it obviously some tools need higher speed and other that's typically the smaller diameter ones and the others have all of that set fully automated so you don't have to prove out with the buttons on the front of the inverter and that's what the good thing we cut off is inside the cabinet and additionally there's going to be loads of other switches go on front panel again which we'll look at in a later video and of course there's the software configuration because at the moment it's only the absolute bare minimum certainly that's very far from the optimal setup and of course once you have extra switches and things that need software configuring as well and of course after that they're actually cutting some components so what a lot more to go but for this time that's all going to be looking at and until next time thanks for watching


More from this creator:
Part 5 in a series on building a CNC router. This episode covers motor mounting, motor wiring, stepper motor drives, spindle inverter and powering the motors for the first time. Other videos in this series:


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